Countries and Capitals of Europe

Of course, some of these will be very obvious, while some of them might be new.

I’ll list the countries in alphabetical order.

Countries prefixed with ! are on the border between Europe and Asia and can be argued to belong to either continent. Kosovo is sometimes considered to be part of Serbia, so I have marked it with !!.

Note that Macedonia was renamed to North Macedonia in 2019, so if you have memorized the map of Europe prior to then, don’t be surprised. Also, Czechia is the modern name for the Czech Republic, although many people still use the full name.

A few countries and capitals have unintuitive pronunciations, or there is a risk of putting the em-PHA-sis the wrong syl-LAB-le. Here, the preferred pronunciation is indicated.

Have fun.

Albania - Tirana (tih-RAH-nuh)
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
!Armenia - Yerevan (YEH-reh-vahn)
Austria - Vienna
!Azerbaijan (a-zer-bye-JAHN or -ZHAHN) - Baku (bah-KOO)
Belarus - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Bosnia and Herzegovina (her-tsih-gov-EE-nuh) - Sarajevo (sare-uh-YEH-voh)
Bulgaria - Sofia (SOH-fee-uh)
Croatia - Zagreb (ZAH-grehb, although the less common zuh-GREHB is also heard)
!Cyprus (SIE-pruss) - Nicosia (nih-koh-SEE-uh)
Czechia (CHECK-ee-uh) - Prague (PRAHG)
Denmark - Copenhagen
Estonia - Tallinn (TALL-inn)
Finland - Helsinki
France - Paris
!Georgia - Tbilisi (either t-BEE/BIH-lih-see or t-bih-LEE-see is acceptable, other pronunciations don’t seem to be encountered too much)
Germany - Berlin
Greece - Athens
Hungary - Budapest (BOO-dah-pesht, yes, the s in Hungarian is a sh sound in English, but you can also use an English s here)
Iceland - Reykjavík (RAKE-yah-vik/veek)
Ireland - Dublin
Italy - Rome
!Kazakhstan (KAH-zahk-stan usually) - Nur-Sultan (noor-sool-TAHN) (renamed from Astana (ah-stah-NAH) in 2019)
!!Kosovo (KOH-soh-voh/KOSS-uh-voh) - Pristina (PRISH-tih-nuh)
Latvia - Riga (REE-guh)
Liechtenstein (LICK-tehn-stine in English) - Vaduz (fah-DOOTS)
Lithuania - Vilnius (VILL-nee-us/oos)
Luxembourg - Luxembourg
Malta - Valletta (vuh-LET-tuh)
Moldova - Chișinău (as if it was spelled “Kishin Now”, stressing the last syllable - kih-shih-NOW)
Monaco - Monaco
Montenegro (mon-teh-NEH-groh) - Podgorica (POD-guh-ree-tsuh)
Netherlands - Amsterdam
North Macedonia - Skopje (SCOPP-yeh)
Norway - Oslo
Poland - Warsaw
Portugal - Lisbon
Romania - Bucharest (BOO-kuh-rest, less commonly boo-kuh-REST)
!Russia - Moscow (most Russians I know use MOSS-coh in English instead of -cow, and I also pronounce it this way)
San Marino (muh-REE-noh) - San Marino
Serbia - Belgrade (BELL-grade)
Slovakia - Bratislava (brah-tih-SLAH-vuh)
Slovenia (-VEE-) - Ljubljana (lyoob-LYAH-nuh)
Spain - Madrid
Sweden - Stockholm
Switzerland - Bern (like burn, but locally more like bear + n)
!Turkey - Ankara (ANG-kuh-ruh)
Ukraine - Kiev/Kyiv (Kyiv is the preferred spelling in Ukraine, as it’s closer to the local Cyrillic name pronounced KIH-yeev)
United Kingdom - London
Vatican City - Vatican City


I did one “Image-story” of all the 96 words (but mine is in portuguese and very personal)

It took 2 days to memorize all 96 countries and capitals

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I made links between countries and their capitals
For learning maps I can see their shape and connect a link with a word that is already in my brain.
Story method is useful but I am not use it
This is my list
Albania - tirana ( Albert Einstein - flagged
Tiranga (is my country flag)
Andorra - Andorra la vella ( Android - La vella)
Armenia - Yerevan ( Army - eat Ye Revni )
Austria - Vienna ( Austria person play Veena)

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