Hey Lance, thought u might be interested in this. I condensed the video into main ideas to memorize. For the last 5 thousand or so years, I will use a different resource, since this one is pretty vague. Particularly the major empires, i created a challenge for it Challenge There are some things with question marks that I’m not sure about, will have to check. Some things in parentheses weren’t in the video and I added them. And here is the summary:
13.8 bil- All energy created, 380 th after- first hydrogen, first galaxies begin to form
13.4 bil- Inside forming galaxies, gas clouds are squeezed together, get hotter, create helium at 18 mil degree F. First stars born, fuse new elements. Few million years after that, first supernovas which create heavy elements that cant be formed inside stars; copper, gold, uranium
Next 8 bil- Stars continue to be born, annihilated and reborn, each generation possessing more heavy elements
4.6 bil- Our sun is formed, consuming 99.9% of dust and gas in the solar system, but leaving enough for planets to form
4.54 bil- Earth formed, days last around 6 hours. Very hot
4.5 bil- Earth collides with Theia(long collision, several hours, same axis), a planet the size of mars. Earth swallows most of it, molten debris that remains forms the moon. Moon makes the earth steady, slows rotation and lengthens days. Collision creates axial tilt
4.4 bil- Water vapor in atmosphere; surface is too hot. Rain starts falling for millions of years(?).
3.8 bil- Earth has a moon, permanent oceans, first lifeforms emerge; bacteria.
2.5 bil- Bacteria begin to use suns energy to live, which creates a byproduct; oxygen. Oxygen binds to iron in the sea, causing it to rust and sink, collect on the ocean floor. Huge deposits are created. When there is no more iron in the sea, oxygen begins to fill up the atmosphere. Some bacteria begin to live on oxygen, as it is twenty times as efficient as anything that came before it.
Next 2 bil- Life becomes more complex, Continents form and the sky turns blue.
550 mil- 13% oxygen atmosphere. Cambryan explosion, complex life. Most major animal groups evolved in these 30 mil years.
500 mil- Bony fish with spines, jaws and teeth
400 mil- Animals begin to go to shore, amphibians. They return to water to lay their jelly like eggs. Eventually, these eggs become harder, develop a shell, and are able to be lain on land.
300 mil- Life flourishes in swamps, plants are buried, compressed, boiled into coal
250 mil- Biggest spike in volcanic activity since early days of planet, atmosphere is filled with carbon dioxide. Diversity of life stopped. 70+% of species extinct. Permian extinction. Dinosaurs reign for next 160 mil yrs. First hardwood forests. Moon finally settles the earth into 24 hr day(?). The supercontinent Pangaea begins to break apart. Dinosaurs are holding mammals back, biggest mammals size of cat.
65 mil(? 250-160=90?) - 6 mile wide asteroid slams into earth. Dust cloud blocks sun. Temperatures plummet. Everything over 50 pounds(?) goes extinct. Dinosaur reign is over(?) Mammals are starting to reign.
50 mil- Primate ancestors evolving. Planet gets hotter. Continents continue drifting apart. Seashells begin to gather in Egypt(Egypt is under water) will make limestone.
10 mil- Mountains have risen, disrupt weather patterns; start cooling planet
7 mil- Grass covers earth. Fewer trees, apes start walking on two feet.
2.6 mil- Hominids walk, find silicone-rocks that don’t shatter, begin making primitive tools, sharp edges, hammers. Stone Age begins, experiment with fire(?).
800 th- Hominids control fire completely. Begin to cook meat, which gives more energy, which allows for larger brains.
200 th- Practically modern humans. Larynx moved down, allows for throat to create complex sounds. Information begins to be shared across generations. This is a critical advantage.
Network of shared information, humans are becoming exponentially smarter. No other animal can pass information across generations.
100 th- Humans begin to expand out of Africa- into afroeurasia. Human dispersal= extinction insurance.
50 th- Glaciers begin to advance down. Humans are introduces into China and Australia.
30 th- Humans in Europe
20 th- Ice at its most extreme. Humans reach Northeast Syberia. First evidence of symbolic thought(? Cave drawings older?). Because of ice, sea levels plummet 3-4 hundred feet. Humans cross across the icebridge from Syberia to North America.
12 th- Humans reach South America, adapt to ice age. Finally colonized entire globe. Ice begins to melt, sea levels rise, ice bridges melt. Humans are separated across two hemispheres. Lakes, rivers, practically the modern map, emerge. Modern rivers such as The Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Indus, Yellow form. Grand canyon carving out by Colorado River. Permanent settlements begin, populations of humans grow. People learn to plant grasses; Sugar Cane, Wheat, Barley, Rye. Farming takes hold, especially in the Middle Eastern Fertile Crescent. Domestication of animals begins. Horses, at least 3 breeds, die out in North America. Before they died out, they spread to Eurasia.
6 th- Thousands live in Uruk, high population density. Horses are tamed, used for work and warfare.
5 th- First writing, armies, politics and trade. Donkey caravans.
4 th- Pyramids, Stone Henge and Ziggurats. Sumerians invent base 12 number system from which we have 24 hour days, 60 seconds and minutes. Also invent wheels from which we
could later make chariots.