Welcome to the forum!
I am sure you got excellent advice from many people here.
Firstly, a disclaimer. I am not a memory champ. I am just a learner.
BTW, I studied computer science too : )
What you are suffering is probably
Trees Vs Forest
used the method of loci a ton and spaced repetition. I can remember the equations.
You are focussed on the trees.
How to do something?
That is the forest. Something like how it fits the bigger picture.
I used to have that issue when I was in school.
Then I found something called Mindmapping and Feynman Technique which Josh mentioned.
Here are the steps which I would follow if I were you:
step 1: read 1 page of book/material/watch 5 minutes of lecture (just an example) on differential equations.
step 2: close the book/material/stop the video and take a blank sheet of paper and mindmap the things you learned
step 3: check if you could recall the content correctly.
step 4: if yes, continue; if no, check where you missed and correct the mind map
step 5: once the whole differential equation section/material/small chunk is done, draw the mindmap sheet from memory.
That formed an algorithm it seems which you are learning I am sure
Try it for yourself. Everyone is different. But it may work for you.
Probably one thing we must remember, to learn something, neurons in our brains must rearrange. This can only happen if we FOCUS. That is the only secret that I have found after years of lurking in memory forums and reading books on memory.
Let us know if you have more questions.